In many biological models multiple time scale dynamics occurs due to the presence of variables and parameters of very different orders of magnitudes. Situations with a clear "global" separation into fast and slow variables governed by singularly perturbed ordinary differential equations in standard form have been investigated in great detail.
The propagation of waves of neural activity across the surface of the brain is known to subserve both natural and pathological neurobiological phenomena. An example of the former is spreading excitation associated with sensory processing, whilst waves in epilepsy are a classic example of the latter. There is now a long history of using integro-differential neural field mod...
Dynamical systems with delayed feedback often exhibit complex oscillations not observed in analogous systems without delay. Stochastic effects can change the picture dramatically, particularly if multiple time scales are present. Then transients ignored in the deterministic system can dominate the long range behavior. This talk will contrast the effects of different noise ...
I will trace the history of models for bursting, concentrating on square-wave bursters descended from the Chay-Keizer model for pancreatic beta cells. The model was originally developed on a biophysical and intutive basis but was put into a mathematical context by John Rinzel's fast-slow analysis. Rinzel also began the process of classifying bursting oscillations base...
The interchange between dynamical systems theory with biology has had lasting impact upon both. As biology becomes increasingly quantitative, this relationship is likely to strengthen still further. This lecture will review my experience as a mathematician working at the interface with biology, emphasizing the role of multiple time scales in biological models. It will also...
Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) are limited neural networks that drive rhythmic behaviors such as locomotion, respiration and mastication. We have been studying the structure, function, and modulation of CPGs, with an emphasis on neuronal and ionic mechanisms that allow flexibility in the output from an anatomically defined network. Both biological and modeling studies s...
The Lorenz system is the classical example of a seemingly simple dynamical system that exhibits chaotic dynamics. In fact, there are numerous studies to characterize the complicated dynamics on the famous butterfly attractor. This talk addresses how the dynamics is organized more globally. An important role in this regard is played by the stable manifold of the origin, als...
We consider a network of inherently oscillatory neurons with time delayed connections. We reduce the system of delay differential equations to a phase model representation and show how the time delay enters into the reduced model. For the case of two neurons, we show how the time delay may affect the stability of the periodic solution leading to stability switching between...
In the first part of this talk I will briefly describe previous work on quadruped gaits (which distinguishing gaits by their spatio-temporal symmetries). In the second part, I will discuss how the application to gaits has led to results about phase-shift synchrony in periodic solutions of coupled systems of differential equations. This work is joint with David Romano, Yunj...
The Mackey-Glass equation is a seemingly simple delay differential equation (DDE) with one fixed delay which can exhibit the full gamut of dynamics from a trivial stable steady state to fully chaotic dynamics, and has inspired decades of mathematical research into DDEs. However, much of that research has focused on equations with fixed or prescribed delays, whereas many bi...
Coherent neuronal activity is ubiquitous and presumably important in brain function. I will review my group's experimental studies of the mechanisms underlying coherent activity using dynamic clamp technology, which allows us to perform virtual-reality-inspired experiments in neurons in vitro. Using these techniques and mathematical tools from dynamical systems theory...
Many neuronal systems and models display so-called mixed-mode oscillations (MMOs) consisting of small-amplitude oscillations alternating with large-amplitude oscillations. Different mechanisms have been identified which may cause this type of behaviour. In this talk, we will focus on MMOs in a slow-fast dynamical system with one fast and two slow variables, containing a fo...
Random dynamical systems with bounded noise can have multiple stationary measures with different supports. Under variation of a parameter, such as the amplitude of the noise, bifurcations of these measures may occur. We discuss such bifurcations both in a context of random diffeomorphisms and of random differential equations.
The plan is to divide the talk in three distinct but related parts.
First, the question of asymptotic stability for equilibria of delay differential equations is addressed numerically. The proposed method, based on the discretization of the infinitesimal generator of the solution operator semigroup via pseudospectral differentiation, allows to approximate th...
Stochastic delay differential equations often arise in biosciences as models involving, e.g., negative feedback terms and intrinsic or extrinsic noise. Examples of applications range from stochastic models of human immune response systems, neural networks or neural fields to genetic regulatory systems. Stability theory for stochastic delay differential equations is quite w...
Delays in feedback loops tend to destabilize dynamical systems, inducing self-sustained oscillations or chaos. I will show some typical examples in my presentation. I will also show how one can reduce the study of periodic oscillations in systems with delay to low-dimensional smooth algebraic systems of equations. The approach works also when the delay depends on the state...